CJK computer science terms comparison

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Greater China, Japan, and Korea, the so-called Sinosphere (漢字文化圈; literally: “Chinese character cultural sphere”), have borrowed many concepts through Sinoxenic vocabularies from the West since the modern era. Some of them have their own translations, but some have imported translations from neighboring countries. In some translations, both native and foreign stems are combined. As a result, Sinosphere countries share a lot of words, but to some extent they have their own parts. And this is no different in computer science translations.

This page contains comparison tables of how computer science terms, mostly derived from English, are translated and called in different regions of Sinosphere.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Contents

Introduction

Cognates

Cognates are words that are derived from one side or share a common etymology.

For example, the English word computer and the Korean word 컴퓨터 (keompyuteo), the Japanese word 計算科学 (keisan kagaku) and the Chinese word 計算科學 (jìsuàn kēxué), that are both meaning computational science, are cognates.

Cognates are indicated by the same colored border.

Calque (loan translation)

Calque is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

For example, the Chinese word 軟件 (ruǎnjiàn) is a translation of the English word software, which translates the English words soft (ruǎn; soft or flexible) and ware (jiàn; clothes or item) respectively.

Matching words/roots between languages in this way are underlined with the same color & shape.

Homophonic translations

For a root transcribed from a foreign word, the original word is displayed on the root.

For example, as the Japanese word コンピュータ (konpyu-ta) is a transcription of English word computer, it is displayed like: コンピュータcomputer.

Romanized pronunciation

The pronunciation of each word is shown in Latin letters in parentheses below the word. The transcription system for each language is as follows:

Mandarin (China & Taiwan)
Hanyu Pinyin
Cantonese (Hong Kong)
Jyutping (Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanization Scheme)
Japanese
Hepburn romanization
Korean
Revised Romanization of Korean (academic transcription for recovering morphophonemic elements1)

Basic terms

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
computer diànnǎo (diànnǎo) din6nou5 (din6nou5) ㄉㄧㄢˋㄋㄠˇ (diànnǎo) コンピュータcomputer (konpyu-ta) 컴퓨터computer (keompyuteo)
smartphone zhìnéngshǒu (zhìnéng shǒujī) zi3nang4din6waa2 (zi3nang4 din6waa2) ㄓˋㄏㄨㄟˋㄒㄧㄥˊㄕㄡˇㄐㄧ (zhìhuì xíng shǒujī) スマートsmartフォンphone (suma-to fon) 스마트smart phone (seumateu pon)
zi3nang4sau2gei1 (zi3nang4 sau2gei1)
software ruǎnjiàn (ruǎnjiàn) jyun5gin2 (jyun5gin2) ㄖㄨㄢˇㄊㄧˇ (ruǎntǐ) ソフトsoftウェアware (sofutowea) 소프트soft웨어ware (sopeuteuwe-eo)
hardware yìngjiàn (yìngjiàn) ngaang6gin2 (ngaang6gin2) ㄧㄥˋㄊㄧˇ (yìngtǐ) ハードhardウェアware (ha-dowea) 하드hard웨어ware (hadeuwe-eo)
information xìn (xìnxī) zi1seon3 (zi1seon3) ㄒㄩㄣˋ (zīxùn) じょうほう (jouhou) (jeongbo)
seon3sik1 (seon3sik1)
data shù (shùjù) zi1liu2 (zi1liu2) ㄌㄧㄠˋ (zīliào) データdata (de-ta) 데이터data (de-iteo)
sou3geoi3 (sou3geoi3) (jalyo)
network wǎngluò (wǎngluò) mong5lok3 (mong5lok3) ㄨㄤˇㄌㄨˋ (wǎnglù) ネットnetワークwork (nettowa-ku) 네트net워크work (neteuwokeu)
ネットnet (netto)
application yìngyòngchéng (yìngyòng chéngxù) jing3jung6cing4sik1 (jing3jung6 cing4sik1) ㄧㄥˋㄩㄥˋㄔㄥˊㄕˋ (yìngyòng chéngshì) アプリケーションapplication (apurike-shon) 애플리케이션application (aepeullike-isyeon)
app アプリ (apuri) app (aeb)
おうよう (ouyou) 프로그램program (eung-yong peulogeulaem)

Units

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
bit 比特bit (bǐtè) wai6jyun4 (wai6jyun4) ㄨㄟˋㄩㄢˊ (wèiyuán) ビットbit (bitto) 비트bit (biteu)
byte jié (zìjié) wai6jyun4zou2 (wai6jyun4zou2) ㄨㄟˋㄩㄢˊㄗㄨˇ (wèiyuánzǔ) バイトbyte (baito) 바이트byte (ba-iteu)
octet jié (bāzìjié) baat3wai6jyun4zou2 (baat3wai6jyun4zou2) ㄅㄚㄨㄟˋㄩㄢˊㄗㄨˇ (bāwèiyuánzǔ) オクテットoctet (okutetto) 옥텟octet (ogtes)
word (zì) zi6 (zi6) ㄗˋ (zì) ワードword (wa-do) 워드word (wodeu)
zi6zou2 (zi6 zou2) ㄗˋㄗㄨˇ (zì zǔ)

Fields of study

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
computer science suànxué (jìsuànjī kēxué) din6nou5fo1hok6 (din6nou5 fo1hok6) ㄉㄧㄢˋㄋㄠˇㄎㄜㄒㄩㄝˊ (diànnǎo kēxué) コンピュータcomputerがく (konpyu-ta kagaku) 컴퓨터computer (keompyuteo gwahag)
けいさんがく (keisanki kagaku) (jeonsanhag)
computational science suànxué (jìsuàn kēxué) gai3syun3fo1hok6 (gai3syun3 fo1hok6) ㄐㄧˋㄙㄨㄢˋㄎㄜㄒㄩㄝˊ (jìsuàn kēxué) けいさんがく (keisan kagaku) (gyesan gwahag)
wan6syun3fo1hok6 (wan6syun3 fo1hok6)
theory of computation suànlùn (jìsuàn lǐlùn) gai3syun3lei5leon6 (gai3syun3 lei5leon6) ㄐㄧˋㄙㄨㄢˋㄌㄧˇㄌㄨㄣˋ (jìsuàn lǐlùn) けいさんろん (keisan riron) (gyesan ilon)
wan6syun3lei5leon6 (wan6syun3 lei5leon6)
computer engineering suàngōngchéng (jìsuànjī gōngchéng) din6nou5gung1cing4 (din6nou5 gung1cing4) ㄉㄧㄢˋㄋㄠˇㄍㄨㄥㄔㄥˊ (diànnǎo gōngchéng) けいさんこうがく (keisanki kougaku) 컴퓨터computer (keompyuteo gonghag)
gai3syun3gei1gung1cing4 (gai3syun3gei1 gung1cing4) コンピュータcomputerこうがく (konpyu-ta kougaku)
software engineering ruǎnjiàngōngchéng (ruǎnjiàn gōngchéng) jyun5gin2gung1cing4 (jyun5gin2 gung1cing4) ㄖㄨㄢˇㄊㄧˇㄍㄨㄥㄔㄥˊ (ruǎntǐ gōngchéng) ソフトウェアsoftwareこうがく (sofutowea kougaku) 소프트웨어software (sopeuteu-we-eo gonghag)
artificial intelligence réngōngzhìnéng (réngōng zhìnéng) jan4gung1zi3nang4 (jan4gung1 zi3nang4) ㄖㄣˊㄍㄨㄥㄓˋㄋㄥˊ (réngōng zhìnéng) じんこうのう (jinkou chinou) (ingong jineung)
computer security suànānquán (jìsuànjī ānquán) din6nou5bou2on1 (din6nou5 bou2on1) ㄉㄧㄢˋㄋㄠˇㄑㄩㄢˊ (diànnǎo ānquán) コンピュータcomputerセキュリティsecurity (konpyu-ta sekyuriti) 컴퓨터computer (keompyuteo bo-an)
information technology security (jeongbo gisul bo-an)
cryptography xué (mìmǎxué) mat6maa5hok6 (mat6maa5hok6) ㄇㄧˋㄇㄚˇㄒㄩㄝˊ (mìmǎxué) あんごうがく (angougaku) (amhohag)
cryptology あんごうろん (angou riron) (amho ilon)

Computer programming

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
computer programming suànbiānchéng (jìsuànjī biānchéng) din6nou5cing4sik1pin1se2 (din6nou5 cing4sik1 pin1se2) ㄉㄧㄢˋㄋㄠˇㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (diànnǎo chéngshì shèjì) コンピュータcomputerプログラミングprogramming (konpyu-ta puroguramingu) 컴퓨터computer 프로그래밍programming (keompyuteo peulogeulaeming)
programming chéngshè (chéngxù shèjì) cing4sik1pin1se2 (cing4sik1 pin1se2) ㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (chéngshì shèjì) プログラミングprogramming (puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (peulogeulaeming)
bug lòudòng (lòudòng) co3ng6 (co3ng6) ㄘㄨㄛˋㄨˋ (cuòwù) バグbug (bagu) 버그bug (beogeu)
cuò (cuòwù)
debug tiáoshì (tiáoshì) ceoi4co3 (ceoi4co3) ㄔㄨˊㄘㄨㄛˋ (chúcuò) deバッグbug (debaggu) de버그bug (dibeogeu)
ㄓㄣㄘㄨㄛˋ (zhēncuò)
source code yuándài (yuán dàimǎ) jyun4ci2maa5 (jyun4ci2 maa5) ㄩㄢˊㄕˇㄇㄚˇ (yuánshǐ mǎ) ソースsourceコードcode (so-suko-do) 소스source 코드code (soseu kodeu)
yuánchéng (yuán chéngxù) jyun4doi6maa5 (jyun4 doi6maa5) 코드code (wonsi kodeu)
flowchart liúchéng (liúchéngtú) lau4cing4tou4 (lau4cing4tou4) ㄌㄧㄡˊㄔㄥˊㄊㄨˊ (liúchéngtú) フローflowチャートchart (furo-cha-to) 플로flow 차트chart (peullo chateu)
なが (nagarezu) (sunseodo)
흐름 (heuleumdo)
variable biànliàng (biànliàng) bin3sou3 (bin3sou3) ㄅㄧㄢˋㄕㄨˋ (biànshù) へんすう (hensuu) (byeonsu)
constant chángliàng (chángliàng) soeng4sou3 (soeng4sou3) ㄔㄤˊㄕㄨˋ (chángshù) ていすう (teisuu) (sangsu)
value zhí (zhí) zik6 (zik6) ㄓˊ (zhí) あたい (atai) (gabs)
function hánshù (hánshù) haam4sou3 (haam4sou3) ㄏㄢˊㄕㄨˋ (hánshù) かんすう (kansuu) (hamsu)
ㄏㄢˊㄕˋ (hánshì)
return value fǎnhuízhí (fǎnhuízhí) cyun4wui4zik6 (cyun4wui4zik6) ㄔㄨㄢˊㄏㄨㄟˊㄓˊ (chuánhuízhí) もど (modorichi) (banhwangabs)
ㄏㄨㄟˊㄔㄨㄢˊㄓˊ (huíchuánzhí) かえ (kaerichi) 리턴return (liteongabs)
へんきゃく (henkyakuchi)
リターンreturn (rita-nchi)
conditional statement tiáojiànchénshù (tiáojiàn chénshù) tiu4gin2can4seot6sik1 (tiu4gin2 can4seot6sik1) ㄊㄧㄠˊㄐㄧㄢˋㄔㄣˊㄕㄨˋ (tiáojiàn chénshù) イフifぶん (ifu bun) 이프if (ipeumun)
じょうけんぶん (jouken bun) (jogeonmun)
recursion guī (dìguī) dai6gwai1 (dai6gwai1) ㄉㄧˋㄏㄨㄟˊ (dìhuí) さい (saiki) (jaegwi)
infinite loop xúnhuán (sǐxúnhuán) mou4haan6wui4hyun1 (mou4haan6 wui4hyun1) ㄨˊㄑㄩㄥˊㄏㄨㄟˊㄑㄩㄢ (wúqióng huíquān) げんループloop (mugen ru-pu) 루프loop (muhan lupeu)
xiànxúnhuán (wúxiàn xúnhuán) ㄨˊㄒㄧㄢˋㄏㄨㄟˊㄑㄩㄢ (wúxiàn huíquān)

Tools

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
editor biān (biānjíqì) pin1cap1hei3 (pin1cap1hei3) ㄅㄧㄢㄐㄧˊㄑㄧˋ (biānjíqì) エディタeditor (edita) 에디터editor (editeo)
(pyeonjibgi)
compiler biān (biānyìqì) pin1jik6hei3 (pin1jik6hei3) ㄅㄧㄢㄧˋㄑㄧˋ (biānyìqì) コンパイラcompiler (konpaira) 컴파일러compiler (keompa-illeo)
decompiler fǎnbiān (fǎnbiānyìqì) faan2pin1jik6hei3 (faan2pin1jik6hei3) ㄈㄢˇㄅㄧㄢㄧˋㄑㄧˋ (fǎnbiānyìqì) ぎゃくコンパイラcompiler (gyaku konpaira) de컴파일러compiler (dikeompa-illeo)
컴파일러compiler (yeogkeompa-illeo)
transpiler zhuǎn (zhuǎnyìqì) zyun2jik6hei3 (zyun2jik6hei3) ㄓㄨㄢˇㄧˋㄑㄧˋ (zhuǎnyìqì) トランスtransパイラpiler (toransupaira) 트랜스trans파일러piler (teulaenseupa-illeo)
debugger tiáoshìgōng (tiáoshì gōngjù) ceoi4co3gung1geoi6 (ceoi4co3 gung1geoi6) ㄔㄨˊㄘㄨㄛˋㄍㄨㄥㄐㄩˋ (chúcuò gōngjù) デバッガdebugger (debagga) 디버거debugger (dibeogeo)
tiáoshì (tiáoshìqì) ceoi4co3hei3 (ceoi4co3hei3) ㄔㄨˊㄘㄨㄛˋㄑㄧˋ (chúcuòqì)
integrated development environment chéngkāihuánjìng (jíchéng kāifā huánjìng) zing2hap6hoi1faat3waan4ging2 (zing2hap6 hoi1faat3 waan4ging2) ㄓㄥˇㄏㄜˊㄎㄞㄈㄚㄏㄨㄢˊㄐㄧㄥˋ (zhěnghé kāifā huánjìng) とうごうかいはつかんきょう (tougou kaihatsu kankyou) (tonghab gaebal hwangyeong)

Theory of computation

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
algorithm suàn (suànfǎ) jin2syun3faat3 (jin2syun3faat3) ㄧㄢˇㄙㄨㄢˋㄈㄚˇ (yǎnsuànfǎ) アルゴリズムalgorithm (arugorizumu) 알고리즘algorithm (algolijeum)
syun3faat3 (syun3faat3)
Turing completeness 图灵Turingwánbèixìng (Túlíng wánbèixìng) 圖靈Turingjyun4zing2sing3 (Tou4ling4 jyun4zing2sing3) 圖靈Turingㄨㄢˊㄅㄟˋㄒㄧㄥˋ (Túlíng wánbèixìng) チューリングTuringかんぜんせい (Chu-ringu kanzensei) 튜링Turing (Tyuling wanjeonseong)
decision problem juédìngxìngwèn (juédìngxìng wèntí) kyut3ding6sing3man6tai4 (kyut3ding6sing3 man6tai4) ㄐㄩㄝˊㄉㄧㄥˋㄒㄧㄥˋㄨㄣˋㄊㄧˊ (juédìngxìng wèntí) けっていもんだい (kettei mondai) (gyeoljeong munje)
pàndìngwèn (pàndìng wèntí) pun3ding6man6tai4 (pun3ding6 man6tai4) ㄆㄢˋㄉㄧㄥˋㄨㄣˋㄊㄧˊ (pàndìng wèntí) はんていもんだい (hantei mondai) (panjeong munje)

Programming paradigms

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
imperative programming zhǐlìngshìbiānchéng (zhǐlìng shì biānchéng) zi2ling6sik1pin1cing4 (zi2ling6 sik1 pin1cing4) ㄓˇㄌㄧㄥˋㄕˋㄅㄧㄢㄔㄥˊ (zhǐlìng shì biānchéng) めいれいがたプログラミングprogramming (meireigata puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (myeonglyeonghyeong peulogeulaeming)
mìnglìngshìbiānchéng (mìnglìng shì biānchéng)
procedural programming guòchéngshìchéngshè (guòchéng shì chéngxùshèjì) cing4zeoi6sik1cing4sik1cit3gai3 (cing4zeoi6 sik1 cing4sik1cit3gai3) ㄔㄥˊㄒㄩˋㄕˋㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (chéngxù shì chéngshìshèjì) つづがたプログラミングprogramming (tetsuduki gata puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (jeolchajeog peulogeulaeming)
guòchéngshìbiānchéng (guòchéng shì biānchéng)
object-oriented programming miànxiàngduìxiàngchéngshè (miànxiàng duìxiàng chéngxùshèjì) mat6gin2dou6hoeng3cing4sik1cit3gai3 (mat6gin2 dou6hoeng3 cing4sik1cit3gai3) ㄨˋㄐㄧㄢˋㄉㄠˇㄒㄧㄤˋㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (wùjiàn dǎoxiàng chéngshìshèjì) オブジェクトobjectこうプログラミングprogramming (obujekuto shikou puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (gaegche jihyang peulogeulaeming)
declarative programming shēngmíngshìbiānchéng (shēngmíng shì biānchéng) syun1gou3sik1pin1cing4 (syun1gou3 sik1 pin1cing4) ㄒㄩㄢㄍㄠˋㄕˋㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (xuāngào shì chéngshìshèjì) せんげんがたプログラミングprogramming (sengengata puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (seon-eonhyeong peulogeulaeming)
프로그래밍programming (seon-eonjeog peulogeulaeming)
functional programming hánshùshìbiānchéng (hánshù shì biānchéng) haam4sou3cing4sik1cit3gai3 (haam4sou3 cing4sik1cit3gai3) ㄏㄢˊㄕˋㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (hánshì chéngshìshèjì) かんすうがたプログラミングprogramming (kansuugata puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (hamsuhyeong peulogeulaeming)
logic programming 逻辑logicbiānchéng (luójí biānchéng) 邏輯logicpin1cing4 (lo4cap1 pin1cing4) 邏輯logicㄔㄥˊㄕˋㄕㄜˋㄐㄧˋ (luójí chéngshìshèjì) ろんプログラミングprogramming (ronri puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (nonlihyeong peulogeulaeming)

Concurrent programming

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
concurrency bìngxìng (bìngfāxìng) bing6hang4sing3 (bing6hang4sing3) ㄅㄧㄥˋㄒㄧㄥˊㄒㄧㄥˋ (bìngxíngxìng) へいこうせい (heikousei) (dongsiseong)
bing3faat3sing3 (bing3faat3sing3) ㄅㄧㄥˋㄈㄚㄒㄧㄥˋ (bìngfāxìng) (byeonghaengseong)
concurrent programming bìngbiānchéng (bìngfā biānchéng) bing3faat3pin1cing4 (bing3faat3 pin1cing4) ㄅㄧㄥˋㄈㄚㄅㄧㄢㄔㄥˊ (bìngfā biānchéng) へいこうプログラミングprogramming (heikou puroguramingu) 프로그래밍programming (dongsiseong peulogeulaeming)
multiprocessing duōjìnchéng (duō jìnchéng) do1jyun4cyu2lei5 (do1jyun4 cyu2lei5) ㄉㄨㄛㄩㄢˊㄔㄨˇㄌㄧˇ (duōyuán chǔlǐ) マルチmultiプロセッシングprocessing (maruchipurosesshingu) 멀티multi프로세싱processing (meoltipeulosesing)
do1cung4cyu2lei5 (do1cung4 cyu2lei5) ㄉㄨㄛㄔㄨㄥˊㄔㄨˇㄌㄧˇ (duōchóng chǔlǐ) (dajung cheoli)
thread 线xiànchéng (xiàn chéng) sin3cing4 (sin3 cing4) ㄓˊㄒㄧㄥˊㄒㄩˋ (zhíxíng xù) スレッドthread (sureddo) 스레드thread (seuledeu)
lock suǒ (suǒ) so2 (so2) ㄙㄨㄛˇ (suǒ) ロックlock (rokku) lock (lag)
mutex chìsuǒ (hùchì suǒ) wu6cik1so2 (wu6cik1 so2) ㄏㄨˋㄔˋㄙㄨㄛˇ (hùchì suǒ) 뮤텍스mutex (myutegseu)

F/OSS

English Chinese (中文) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어)
China (中国) Hong Kong (香港) Taiwan (台灣)
free software yóuruǎnjiàn (zìyóu ruǎnjiàn) zi6jau4jyun5gin2 (zi6jau4 jyun5gin2) ㄗˋㄧㄡˊㄖㄨㄢˇㄊㄧˇ (zìyóu ruǎntǐ) ゆうソフトウェアsoftware (jiyuu sofutowea) 소프트웨어software (ja-yu sopeuteu-we-eo)
open source software kāifàngyuándàiruǎnjiàn (kāifàng yuándàimǎ ruǎnjiàn) hoi1fong3jyun4ci2maa5jyun5gin2 (hoi1fong3 jyun4ci2maa5 jyun5gin2) ㄎㄞㄈㄤˋㄩㄢˊㄕˇㄇㄚˇㄖㄨㄢˇㄊㄧˇ (kāifàng yuánshǐmǎ ruǎntǐ) オープンopenソースsourceソフトウェアsoftware (o-pun so-su sofutowea) 오픈open 소스source 소프트웨어software (opeun soseu sopeuteu-we-eo)
kāiyuánruǎnjiàn (kāi yuán ruǎnjiàn) hoi1jyun4jyun5gin2 (hoi1 jyun4 jyun5gin2)
software license ruǎnjiànzhèng (ruǎnjiàn xǔkězhèng) jyun5gin2dak6heoi2tiu4fun2 (jyun5gin2 dak6heoi2tiu4fun2) ㄖㄨㄢˇㄊㄧˇㄕㄡˋㄑㄩㄢˊ (ruǎntǐ shòuquán) ソフトウェアsoftwareライセンスlicense (sofutowea raisensu) 소프트웨어software 라이선스license (sopeuteu-we-eo la-iseonseu)
소프트웨어software 使 (sopeuteu-we-eo sa-yonggwon)

  1. Romanization of Korean. National Institute of Korean Language. § 3.8 (Korean).